BACKGROUND: We used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ask how elevated mutation rates affect the evolution of asexual eukaryotic populations. Mismatch repair defective and nonmutator strains were competed during adaptation to four laboratory environments (rich medium, low glucose, high salt, and a nonfermentable carbon source). RESULTS: In diploids, mutators have an advantage over nonmutators in all conditions, and mutators that win competitions are on average fitter than nonmutator winners. In contrast, haploid mutators have no advantage when competed against haploid nonmutators, and haploid mutator winners are less fit than nonmutator winners. The diploid mutator winners were all superior to their ancestors both in the condition they had adapted to, and in two of the other conditions. This phenotype was due to a mutation or class of mutations that confers a large growth advantage during the respiratory phase of yeast cultures that precedes stationary phase. This generalist mutation(s) was not selected in diploid nonmutator strains or in haploid strains, which adapt primarily by fixing specialist (condition-specific) mutations. In diploid mutators, such mutations also occur, and the majority accumulates after the fixation of the generalist mutation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the advantage of mutators depends on ploidy and that diploid mutators can give rise to beneficial mutations that are inaccessible to nonmutators and haploid mutators.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|