RESULTS: We have improved NCA for transcription factor activity (TFA) estimation, based on the observation that most genes are regulated by only a few TFs. This observation leads to the derivation of a new identifiability criterion which is tested during numerical iteration that allows us to decompose data when the number of TFs is greater than the number of experiments. To show that our method works with real microarray data and has biological utility, we analyze Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle microarray data (73 experiments) using a TF-gene connectivity network (96 TFs) derived from ChIP-chip binding data. We compare the results of NCA analysis with the results obtained from ChIP-chip regression methods, and we show that NCA and regression produce TFAs that are qualitatively similar, but the NCA TFAs outperform regression in statistical tests. We also show that NCA can extract subtle TFA signals that correlate with known cell cycle TF function and cell cycle phase. Overall we determined that 31 TFs have statistically periodic TFAs in one or more experiments, 75% of which are known cell cycle regulators. In addition, we find that the 12 TFAs that are periodic in two or more experiments correspond to well-known cell cycle regulators. We also investigated TFA sensitivity to the choice of connectivity network we constructed two networks using different ChIP-chip p-value cut-offs. BACKGROUND: The NCA Toolbox for MATLAB is available at http://www.seas.ucla.edu/~liaoj/download.htm.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|