ATR is a key regulator of checkpoint responses to incompletely replicated and damaged DNA, but the mechanisms underlying control of its kinase activity are unknown. TopBP1, the vertebrate homolog of yeast Cut5/Dbp11, has dual roles in initiation of DNA replication and regulation of checkpoint responses. We show that recombinant TopBP1 induces a large increase in the kinase activity of both Xenopus and human ATR. The ATR-activating domain resides in a conserved segment of TopBP1 that is distinct from its numerous BRCT repeats. The isolated ATR-activating domain from TopBP1 induces ectopic activation of ATR-dependent signaling in both Xenopus egg extracts and human cells. Furthermore, Xenopus egg extracts containing a version of TopBP1 with an inactivating point mutation in the ATR-activating domain are defective in checkpoint regulation. These studies establish that activation of ATR by TopBP1 is a crucial step in the initiation of ATR-dependent signaling processes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|