An important question is to what extent metabolic fluxes are regulated by gene expression or by metabolic regulation. There are two distinct aspects to this question: (i) the local regulation of the fluxes through the individual steps in the pathway and (ii) the influence of such local regulation on the pathway's flux. We developed regulation analysis so as to address the former aspect for all steps in a pathway. We demonstrate the method for the issue of how Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates the fluxes through its individual glycolytic and fermentative enzymes when confronted with nutrient starvation. Regulation was dissected quantitatively into (i) changes in maximum enzyme activity (Vmax, called hierarchical regulation) and (ii) changes in the interaction of the enzyme with the rest of metabolism (called metabolic regulation). Within a single pathway, the regulation of the fluxes through individual steps varied from fully hierarchical to exclusively metabolic. Existing paradigms of flux regulation (such as single- and multisite modulation and exclusively metabolic regulation) were tested for a complete pathway and falsified for a major pathway in an important model organism. We propose a subtler mechanism of flux regulation, with different roles for different enzymes, i.e., "leader," "follower," or "conservative," the latter attempting to hold back the change in flux. This study makes this subtlety, so typical for biological systems, tractable experimentally and invites reformulation of the questions concerning the drives and constraints governing metabolic flux regulation.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|