In yeast, phosphatidylethanolamine is a target of the Atg8 modifier in ubiquitylation-like reactions essential for autophagy. Three human Atg8 (hAtg8) homologs, LC3, GABARAP, and GATE-16, have been characterized as modifiers in reactions mediated by hAtg7 (an E1-like enzyme) and hAtg3 (an E2-like enzyme) as in yeast Atg8 lipidation, but their final targets have not been identified. The results of a recent study in which COS7 cells were incubated with [14C]ethanolamine for 48 h suggested that phosphatidylethanolamine is a target of LC3. However, these results were not conclusive because of the long incubation time. To identify the phospholipid targets of Atg8 homologs, we reconstituted conjugation systems for mammalian Atg8 homologs in vitro using purified recombinant Atg proteins and liposomes. Each purified mutant Atg8 homolog with an exposed C-terminal Gly formed an E1-substrate intermediate with hAtg7 via a thioester bond in an ATP-dependent manner and formed an E2-substrate intermediate with hAtg3 via a thioester bond dependent on ATP and hAtg7. A conjugated form of each Atg8 homolog was observed in the presence of hAtg7, hAtg3, ATP, and liposomes. In addition to phosphatidylethanolamine, in vitro conjugation experiments using synthetic phospholipid liposomes showed that phosphatidylserine is also a target of LC3, GABARAP, and GATE-16. In contrast, thin layer chromatography of phospholipids released on hAtg4B-digestion from endogenous LC3-phospholipid conjugate revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, but not phosphatidylserine, is the predominant target phospholipid of LC3 in vivo. The discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo reactions suggested that there may be selective factor(s) involved in the endogenous LC3 conjugation system.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|