The RIO family of atypical serine protein kinases has been first characterized only recently. It consists of enzymes that contain a unique domain with a characteristic kinase sequence motif, and usually some additional domains. At least two RIO proteins, Rio1 and Rio2, are present in organisms varying from archaea to humans, with a third Rio3 subfamily present only in multicellular eukaryotes. Yeast Rio1 and Rio2 proteins have been implicated in processing of 20S pre-rRNA and are necessary for survival of the cells. Crystal structures of Archaeoglobus fulgidus Rio1 and Rio2 have shown that, whereas the overall fold of these enzymes resembles typical protein kinases, some of the structural domains, particularly those involved in peptide substrate binding, are not present. The mode of binding of nucleotides also differs from that found in typical protein kinases. While it has been shown that both Rio1 and Rio2 have the enzymatic activity of kinases and are capable of autophosphorylation, the biological substrates of RIO proteins and their full biological role still remain to be discovered.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|