Reference: Rhee SG, et al. (2005) Peroxiredoxins: a historical overview and speculative preview of novel mechanisms and emerging concepts in cell signaling. Free Radic Biol Med 38(12):1543-52

Reference Help

Abstract


The observation that purified yeast glutamine synthetase is rapidly inactivated in a thiol-containing buffer yet retains activity in crude extracts containing the same thiol led to our discovery of an enzyme that protects against oxidation in a thiol-containing system. This novel antioxidant enzyme was shown to reduce hydroperoxides and, more recently, peroxynitrite with the use of electrons provided by a physiological thiol like thioredoxin. It defined a family of proteins, present in organisms from all kingdoms, that was named peroxiredoxin (Prx). All Prx enzymes contain a conserved Cys residue that undergoes a cycle of peroxide-dependent oxidation and thiol-dependent reduction during catalysis. Mammalian cells express six isoforms of Prx (Prx I to VI), which are classified into three subgroups (2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys) based on the number and position of Cys residues that participate in catalysis. The relative abundance of Prx enzymes in mammalian cells appears to protect cellular components by removing the low levels of peroxides produced as a result of normal cellular metabolism. During catalysis, the active site cysteine is occasionally overoxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid. Contrary to the general belief that oxidation to the sulfinic state is an irreversible process in cells, studies on the fate of the overoxidized Prx species revealed a mechanism by which the catalytically active thiol form is recovered. This sulfinic reduction is a slow, ATP-dependent process that is specific to 2-Cys Prx isoforms. This reversible overoxidation may represent an adaptation unique to eukaryotic cells that accommodates the intracellular messenger function of H(2)O(2), but experimental validation of such speculation is yet to come.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Review
Authors
Rhee SG, Chae HZ, Kim K
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference