TNFR1/Fas engagement results in the cleavage of cytosolic Bid to truncated Bid (tBid), which translocates to mitochondria. We demonstrate that recombinant tBid induces in vitro immediate destabilization of the mitochondrial bioenergetic homeostasis. These alterations result in mild uncoupling of mitochondrial state-4 respiration, associated with an inhibition the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration and phosphorylation rate. tBid disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis was inhibited in mitochondria overexpressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. The inhibition of state-3 respiration is mediated by the reorganization of cardiolipin within the mitochondrial membranes, which indirectly affects the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator. Cardiolipin-deficient yeast mitochondria did not exhibit any respiratory inhibition by tBid, proving the absolute requirement for cardiolipin for tBid binding and activity. In contrast, the wild-type yeast mitochondria underwent a similar inhibition of ADP-stimulated respiration associated with reduced ATP synthesis. These events suggest that mitochondrial lipids rather than proteins are the key determinants of tBid-induced destabilization of mitochondrial bioenergetics.
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