Three kinases, Pak1, Tos3, and Elm1, activate Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This cascade is conserved in mammals, where LKB1 activates AMP-activated protein kinase. We address the specificity of the activating kinases for the three forms of Snf1 protein kinase containing the beta-subunit isoforms Gal83, Sip1, and Sip2. Pak1 is the most important kinase for activating Snf1-Gal83 in response to glucose limitation, but Elm1 also has a significant role; moreover, both Pak1 and Elm1 affect Snf1-Sip2. These findings exclude the possibility of a one-to-one correspondence between the activating kinases and the Snf1 complexes. We further identify a second, unexpected role for Pak1 in regulating Snf1-Gal83: the catalytic activity of Pak1 is required for the nuclear enrichment of Snf1-Gal83 in response to carbon stress. The nuclear enrichment of Snf1 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) depends on both Gal83 and Pak1 and is abolished by a mutation of the activation loop threonine; in contrast, the nuclear enrichment of Gal83-GFP occurs in a snf1Delta mutant and depends on Pak1 only when Snf1 is present. Snf1-Gal83 is the only form of the kinase that localizes to the nucleus. These findings, that Pak1 both activates Snf1-Gal83 and controls its nuclear localization, implicate Pak1 in regulating nuclear Snf1 protein kinase activity.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|