Rat LC3, a homologue of yeast Atg8 (Aut7/Apg8), localizes to autophagosomal membranes after post-translational modifications. The C-terminal fragment of LC3 is cleaved immediately following synthesis to yield a cytosolic form called LC3-I. A subpopulation of LC3-I is further converted to an autophagosome-associating form, LC3-II. Because yeast Atg8 is conjugated with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by a ubiquitin-like system, it has been hypothesized that LC3 is modified in a similar manner. Here, we show that [(14)C]-ethanolamine was preferentially incorporated into LC3-II, suggesting that LC3-II is a PE-conjugated form. LC3-II can be a substrate of mammalian Atg4B, a homologue of yeast Atg8-PE deconjugase, supporting the idea that LC3-II is LC3-PE. Moreover, two other mammalian homologues of yeast Atg8, gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-A-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE16) also generate form II, which are recovered in membrane fractions. Generation of the form II correlates with autophagosome association of GABARAP and GATE16. These results suggest that all mammalian Atg8 homologues receive a common modification to associate with autophagosomal membrane as the form II.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|