The alpha-factor receptor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoded by the STE2 gene is a member of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate multiple signal transduction pathways. The third intracellular loop of GPCRs has been identified as a likely site of interaction with G proteins. To determine the extent of allowed substitutions within this loop, we subjected a stretch of 21 amino acids (Leu228-Leu248) to intensive random mutagenesis and screened multiply substituted alleles for receptor function. The 91 partially functional mutant alleles that were recovered contained 96 unique amino acid substitutions. Every position in this region can be replaced with at least two other types of amino acids without a significant effect on function. The tolerance for nonconservative substitutions indicates that activation of the G protein by ligand-bound receptors involves multiple intramolecular interactions that do not strongly depend on particular sequence elements. Many of the functional mutant alleles exhibit greater than normal levels of signaling, consistent with an inhibitory role for the third intracellular loop. Removal of increasing numbers of positively charged residues from the loop by site-directed mutagenesis causes a progressive loss of signaling function, indicating that the overall net charge of the loop is important for receptor function. Introduction of negatively charged residues also leads to a reduced level of signaling. The defects in signaling caused by substitution of charged amino acids are not caused by changes in the abundance of receptors at the cell surface.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|