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Reference: Beilharz T, et al. (2003) Bipartite signals mediate subcellular targeting of tail-anchored membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 278(10):8219-23

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Abstract

Tail-anchored proteins have an NH(2)-terminal cytosolic domain anchored to intracellular membranes by a single, COOH-terminal, transmembrane segment. Sequence analysis identified 55 tail-anchored proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with several novel proteins, including Prm3, which we find is required for karyogamy and is tail-anchored in the nuclear envelope. A total of six tail-anchored proteins are present in the mitochondrial outer membrane and have relatively hydrophilic transmembrane segments that serve as targeting signals. The rest, by far the majority, localize via a bipartite system of signals: uniformly hydrophobic tail anchors are first inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum, and additional segments within the cytosolic domain of each protein can dictate subsequent sorting to a precise destination within the cell.

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Journal Article
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Beilharz T, Egan B, Silver PA, Hofmann K, Lithgow T
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