We have determined the solution structure of calmodulin (CaM) from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (yCaM) in the apo state by using NMR spectroscopy. yCaM is 60% identical in its amino acid sequence with other CaMs, and exhibits its unique biological features. yCaM consists of two similar globular domains (N- and C-domain) containing three Ca(2+)-binding motifs, EF-hands, in accordance with the observed 3 mol of Ca(2+) binding. In the solution structure of yCaM, the conformation of the N-domain conforms well to the one of the expressed N-terminal half-domains of yCaM [Ishida, H., et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 13660-13668]. The conformation of the C-domain basically consists of a pair of helix-loop-helix motifs, though a segment corresponding to the forth Ca(2+)-binding site of CaM deviates in its primary structure from a typical EF-hand motif and loses the ability to bind Ca(2+). Thus, the resulting conformation of each domain is essentially identical to the corresponding domain of CaM in the apo state. A flexible linker connects the two domains as observed for CaM. Any evidence for the previously reported interdomain interaction in yCaM was not observed in the solution structure of the apo state. Hence, the interdomain interaction possibly occurs in the course of Ca(2+) binding and generates a cooperative Ca(2+) binding among all three sites. Preliminary studies on a mutant protein of yCaM, E104Q, revealed that the Ca(2+)-bound N-domain interacts with the apo C-domain and induces a large conformational change in the C-domain.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|