Reference: Paavilainen VO, et al. (2002) Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin. J Biol Chem 277(45):43089-95

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Abstract


Twinfilin is an evolutionarily conserved actin monomer-binding protein that regulates cytoskeletal dynamics in organisms from yeast to mammals. It is composed of two actin-depolymerization factor homology (ADF-H) domains that show approximately 20% sequence identity to ADF/cofilin proteins. In contrast to ADF/cofilins, which bind both G-actin and F-actin and promote filament depolymerization, twinfilin interacts only with G-actin. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of twinfilin-actin monomer interaction, we determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal ADF-H domain of twinfilin and mapped its actin-binding site by site-directed mutagenesis. This domain has similar overall structure to ADF/cofilins, and the regions important for actin monomer binding in ADF/cofilins are especially well conserved in twinfilin. Mutagenesis studies show that the N-terminal ADF-H domain of twinfilin and ADF/cofilins also interact with actin monomers through similar interfaces, although the binding surface is slightly extended in twinfilin. In contrast, the regions important for actin-filament interactions in ADF/cofilins are structurally different in twinfilin. This explains the differences in actin-interactions (monomer versus filament binding) between twinfilin and ADF/cofilins. Taken together, our data show that the ADF-H domain is a structurally conserved actin-binding motif and that relatively small structural differences at the actin interfaces of this domain are responsible for the functional variation between the different classes of ADF-H domain proteins.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Paavilainen VO, Merckel MC, Falck S, Ojala PJ, Pohl E, Wilmanns M, Lappalainen P
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