Specific sorting signals direct transmembrane proteins to the compartments of the endosomal-lysosomal system. Acidic-cluster-dileucine signals present within the cytoplasmic tails of sorting receptors, such as the cation-independent and cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptors, are recognized by the GGA (Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation-factor-binding) proteins. The VHS (Vps27p, Hrs and STAM) domains of the GGA proteins are responsible for the highly specific recognition of these acidic-cluster-dileucine signals. Here we report the structures of the VHS domain of human GGA3 complexed with signals from both mannose-6-phosphate receptors. The signals bind in an extended conformation to helices 6 and 8 of the VHS domain. The structures highlight an Asp residue separated by two residues from a dileucine sequence as critical recognition elements. The side chains of the Asp-X-X-Leu-Leu sequence interact with subsites consisting of one electropositive and two shallow hydrophobic pockets, respectively. The rigid spatial alignment of the three binding subsites leads to high specificity.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|