The fusion of cellular membranes comprises several steps; membrane attachment requires priming of SNAREs and tethering factors by Sec18p/NSF (N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor) and LMA1. This leads to trans-SNARE pairing, i.e. formation of SNARE complexes between apposed membranes. The yeast vacuole system has revealed two subsequent molecular events: trans-complex formation of V-ATPase proteolipid sectors (V(0)) and release of LMA1 from the membrane. We have now identified a hetero-oligomeric membrane integral complex of vacuolar transporter chaperone (Vtc) proteins integrating these events. The Vtc complex associates with the R-SNARE Nyv1p and with V(0). Subunits Vtc1p and Vtc4p control the initial steps of fusion. They are required for Sec18p/NSF activity in SNARE priming, membrane binding of LMA1 and V(0) trans-complex formation. In contrast, subunit Vtc3p is required for the latest step, LMA1 release, but dispensible for all preceding steps, including V(0) trans-complex formation. This suggests that Vtc3p might act close to or at fusion pore opening. We propose that Vtc proteins may couple ATP-dependent NSF activity to a subset of V(0) sectors in order to activate them for V(0) trans-complex formation and/or control fusion pore opening.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|