Calmodulin, a small, ubiquitous Ca(2+)-binding protein, regulates a wide variety of proteins and processes in all eukaryotes. CMD1, the single gene encoding calmodulin in S. cerevisiae, is essential, and this review discusses studies that identified many of calmodulin's physiological targets and their functions in yeast cells. Calmodulin performs essential roles in mitosis, through its regulation of Nuf1p/Spc110p, a component of the spindle pole body, and in bud growth, by binding Myo2p, an unconventional class V myosin required for polarized secretion. Surprisingly, mutant calmodulins that fail to bind Ca(2+) can perform these essential functions. Calmodulin is also required for endocytosis in yeast and participates in Ca(2+)-dependent, stress-activated signaling pathways through its regulation of a protein phosphatase, calcineurin, and the protein kinases, Cmk1p and Cmk2p. Thus, calmodulin performs important physiological functions in yeast cells in both its Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free form.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|