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Reference: Hidalgo P, et al. (2001) Recruitment of the transcriptional machinery through GAL11P: structure and interactions of the GAL4 dimerization domain. Genes Dev 15(8):1007-20

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Abstract


The GAL4 dimerization domain (GAL4-dd) is a powerful transcriptional activator when tethered to DNA in a cell bearing a mutant of the GAL11 protein, named GAL11P. GAL11P (like GAL11) is a component of the RNA-polymerase II holoenzyme. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of GAL4-dd revealed an elongated dimer structure with C(2) symmetry containing three helices that mediate dimerization via coiled-coil contacts. The two loops between the three coiled coils form mobile bulges causing a variation of twist angles between the helix pairs. Chemical shift perturbation analysis mapped the GAL11P-binding site to the C-terminal helix alpha3 and the loop between alpha1 and alpha2. One GAL11P monomer binds to one GAL4-dd dimer rendering the dimer asymmetric and implying an extreme negative cooperativity mechanism. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of GAL4-dd showed that the NMR-derived GAL11P-binding face is crucial for the novel transcriptional activating function of the GAL4-dd on GAL11P interaction. The binding of GAL4 to GAL11P, although an artificial interaction, represents a unique structural motif for an activating region capable of binding to a single target to effect gene expression.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Authors
Hidalgo P, Ansari AZ, Schmidt P, Hare B, Simkovich N, Farrell S, Shin EJ, Ptashne M, Wagner G
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