The GAL4 dimerization domain (GAL4-dd) is a powerful transcriptional activator when tethered to DNA in a cell bearing a mutant of the GAL11 protein, named GAL11P. GAL11P (like GAL11) is a component of the RNA-polymerase II holoenzyme. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of GAL4-dd revealed an elongated dimer structure with C(2) symmetry containing three helices that mediate dimerization via coiled-coil contacts. The two loops between the three coiled coils form mobile bulges causing a variation of twist angles between the helix pairs. Chemical shift perturbation analysis mapped the GAL11P-binding site to the C-terminal helix alpha3 and the loop between alpha1 and alpha2. One GAL11P monomer binds to one GAL4-dd dimer rendering the dimer asymmetric and implying an extreme negative cooperativity mechanism. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of GAL4-dd showed that the NMR-derived GAL11P-binding face is crucial for the novel transcriptional activating function of the GAL4-dd on GAL11P interaction. The binding of GAL4 to GAL11P, although an artificial interaction, represents a unique structural motif for an activating region capable of binding to a single target to effect gene expression.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|