RasGRP represents the prototype of a new class of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate small GTPases. The guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (GRP) family members contain catalytic domains related to CDC25, the Ras exchange factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They also contain a motif resembling a pair of calcium-binding EF-hands and a C1 domain similar to the diacylglycerol interaction domain of protein kinase C. The sequence of KIAA0846, identified in a human brain cDNA library, encodes a member of the GRP family that we refer to as RasGRP3. We show here that RasGRP3 bound phorbol esters with high affinity. This binding depended on anionic phospholipids, which is characteristic of phorbol ester binding to C1 domain proteins. In addition, phorbol esters also caused activation of the RasGRP3 exchange activity in intact cells, as determined by an increase in RasGTP and phosphorylation of the extracellular-regulated kinases. Finally, both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the diacylglycerol analogue 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol induced redistribution of RasGRP3 to the plasma membrane and/or perinuclear area in HEK-293 cells, as demonstrated using a green fluorescent fusion protein. We conclude that RasGRP3 serves as a PKC-independent pathway to link the tumor-promoting phorbol esters with activation of Ras GTPases.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|