In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, positioning of the mitotic spindle depends on the interaction of cytoplasmic microtubules with the cell cortex. In this process, cortical Kar9p in the bud acts as a link between the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. To identify Kar9p-interacting proteins, a two-hybrid screen was conducted with the use of full-length Kar9p as bait, and three genes were identified: BIM1, STU2, and KAR9 itself. STU2 encodes a component of the spindle pole body. Bim1p is the yeast homologue of the human microtubule-binding protein EB1, which is a binding partner to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein involved in colon cancer. Eighty-nine amino acids within the third quarter of Bim1p was sufficient to confer interaction with Kar9p. The two-hybrid interactions were confirmed with the use of coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Genetic analysis placed Bim1p in the Kar9p pathway for nuclear migration. Bim1p was not required for Kar9p's cortical or spindle pole body localization. However, deletion of BIM1 eliminated Kar9p localization along cytoplasmic microtubules. Furthermore, in the bim1 mutants, the cytoplasmic microtubules no longer intersected the cortical dot of Green Fluorescent Protein-Kar9p. These experiments demonstrate that the interaction of cytoplasmic microtubules with the Kar9p cortical attachment site requires the microtubule-binding protein Bim1p.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|