Reference: Kanaya S, et al. (1999) Studies of codon usage and tRNA genes of 18 unicellular organisms and quantification of Bacillus subtilis tRNAs: gene expression level and species-specific diversity of codon usage based on multivariate analysis. Gene 238(1):143-55

Reference Help

Abstract

We examined codon usage in Bacillus subtilis genes by multivariate analysis, quantified its cellular levels of individual tRNAs, and found a clear constraint of tRNA contents on synonymous codon choice. Individual tRNA levels were proportional to the copy number of the respective tRNA genes. This indicates that the tRNA gene copy number is an important factor to determine in cellular tRNA levels, which is common with Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Codon usage in 18 unicellular organisms whose genomes have been sequenced completely was analyzed and compared with the composition of tRNA genes. The 18 organisms are as follows: yeast S. cerevisiae, Aquifex aeolicus, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, B. subtilis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacterpylori, Methanococcusjannaschii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Rickettsia prowazekii, Synechocystis sp., and Treponema pallidum. Codons preferred in highly expressed genes were related to the codons optimal for the translation process, which were predicted by the composition of isoaccepting tRNA genes. Genes with specific codon usage are discussed in connection with their evolutionary origins and functions. The origin and terminus of replication could be predicted on the basis of codon usage when the usage was analyzed relative to the transcription direction of individual genes.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Kanaya S, Yamada Y, Kudo Y, Ikemura T
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference