Endonuclease IV is the archetype for a conserved apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family that primes DNA repair synthesis by cleaving the DNA backbone 5' of AP sites. The crystal structures of Endonuclease IV and its AP-DNA complex at 1.02 and 1.55 A resolution reveal how an alpha8beta8 TIM barrel fold can bind dsDNA. Enzyme loops intercalate side chains at the abasic site, compress the DNA backbone, bend the DNA approximately 90 degrees, and promote double-nucleotide flipping to sequester the extrahelical AP site in an enzyme pocket that excludes undamaged nucleotides. These structures suggest three Zn2+ ions directly participate in phosphodiester bond cleavage and prompt hypotheses that double-nucleotide flipping and sharp bending by AP endonucleases provide exquisite damage specificity while aiding subsequent base excision repair pathway progression.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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